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VETERINARY CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY
CARDIOLOGY CONCEPTS
Echocardiography
Normal M-Mode Parameters
1. Normal M-Mode Echocardiographic Parameters

A. For the cat:

X +/- 2SD
LVID-D (mm) 13 3.5
LVID-S (mm) 8.5 3.5
F.S. (%) 35 10
IVS-D (mm) 3.5 2
IVS-S (mm) 5.0 1.5
LVFW-D (mm) 3 2
LVFW-S (mm) 5.5 1.5
AO (mm) 9 3
LA (mm) 9 3

B. For the dog

  1. Parameters that are independent of body weight:

    X +/- 2SD
    F.S. (%) 33 12
    EPSS 3.25 2.7

  2. Other parameters varied with body weight and thus normograms must be utilized to determine individual values based on body weight.
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