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Cardiovascular Physiology
1. What is the role of the lymphatic system?

To prevent the accumulation of excessive interstitial fluid especially in the lung. In the absence of lymphatic obstruction lymph flow can increase 20 to 50 times to remove excess fluid accumulation.

Lymph fluid is carried into the thorax and enters the subclavian veins to flow into the cranial vena cava and right atrium.

These vessels continuously remove interstitial fluid and prevent its excessive accumulation.

2. How is lymph formed?
It forms as a result of Starling Forces that promote a net efflux of fluid from the vascular compartment into the interstitial spaces. Plasma protein is also deposited into the interstitial spaces by pinocytosis. This fluid and protein accumulation is removed continuously by lymphatics.
3. What factors promote the flux of fluid?
Into the lymphatic vessels
  • Excessive production of interstitial fluid
  • Out of the lymphatic vessels

  • Excessive hydrostatic pressure in the right side of the heart
  • Overwhelmed lymphatic flow
  • Lymphatic obstruction
  • 4. The student should be familiar with:
  • The structure and location of lymphatic vessels
  • The identification of the major lymphatic vessels
  • production